Tuesday, February 15, 2011


In continuing with the WRIGLEY histories, this post is about Joseph Wrigley.  Along with his picture, there is a short history,  a timeline, and information about the Black Hawk War of Utah, in which he participated.

                               HISTORY JOSEPH WRIGLEY

(Information collected from a histories of his brother John, his son, Edward, (written by Sarah Adelaide Wrigley Kirkham, daughter of Edward), his daughter Marintha, and his father Thomas. Information also taken from DUP Lesson (January 2001) and the book Prominent Men of Utah.

Joseph Wrigley was born to Thomas Wrigley and Grace Mary Wilkinson on 24 Feb 1840 in Doncaster, York, England. When he was two, his father went ahead to America to work for money to pay for his family to join him. Thomas (his father) left in Oct, 1842 aboard the “Emerald” with Parly P. Pratt as president of the ocmpany, arriving in New Orleans in December of 1842 then traveled on the “Maid of Iowa” to Nauvoo. The family left England on 15 Jan 1844 when Joseph was four years of age.They sailed on the bark, “Fanny”, with Captain Peterson and Elder W. T. Kay, president of the company of saints in 1844. The family consisted of Joseph’s mother, brother John (age 6) and Sister Mary (age 2).

After six weeks of good sailing, they arrived in New Orleans where they met Thomas who came from Nauvoo to meet them. They sailed up the Mississippi River on the “Maid of Iowa”, and after about one month of toil and hardship on the river, they arrived in St. Louis Missouri on 7 April 1843. More information about their stay in St. Louis is in the history of Thomas Wrigley. From available information, it seems the ocean journey for this family was fairly comfortable, but the trip up the Mississippi was more difficult. Joseph is listed in the 1850 Census in St. Louis, with his family, his father listed as a tailer.

The Wrigley family lived in St. Louis for about 8 years before they journeyed to Kanesville (Council Bluffs) where they joined a wagon train leaving for Salt Lake on 24 June 1852. They eventually made it to Salt Lake City on 21 Sep 1852 with one wagon and two yoke of oxen. It must have been an exciting trip for a twelve year old, enjoying the adventure and seeing the hardships as challenges. At his aghe, he would have been given responsibilities of a man, along with the freedom. Nine other poor people traveled with them. The wagon and two yoke of oxen that they used had been donated to the Perpetual Emigration Fund by the St. Louis Branch (where Thomas had served in many positions) to help carry provisions from Iowa to Salt Lake City for the saints.

From his daughter Marintha we learn:

“Many saints were coming wets, some meeting with unheard of hardships and hunger. Brigham Young formed companies of men with teams and sent them with supplies to meet and assist the saints to complete the journey. He ask Thomas Wrigley for his oldest son to go. He was needed on the farm, but Joseph, then sixteen years old, volunteered to go. His offer was accepted and he made eight of these trips, with nothing but success. “

Eventually Joseph make 8 of these trips. It is known that he made some of those trips in 1861-1864. About these experiences, his daughter Marintha writes:

“. Went to the Missouri River as a Church teamster in 1861. Next year again as night herder in Captain Horne’s Company. Next year, 1863, in Peter Nebeker’s Train, going out and in Captain Patterson’s company coming back.(Joseph is listed in this company in the Mormon Overland Trail Records). In 1864, went as night herder and assisted Captain Chipman’s Company.”

During his years of traveling, Joseph married beautiful Adah Lucy Steel (age 15 at the time) in 1863. The marriage did not last long, with Adah leaving before their first child, Edward, was born. Joseph’s son was raised by Adah Lucy’s parents, and was never close to his father. (Family tradition indicates Joseph met Adah Lucy while on the trail. Since he was traveling east and back in 1863, this is a possibility.)

It is interesting to note that Joseph received his Endowment in the Endowment House in 1862 when he was 22 years old.

Eventually, President Brigham Young called Joseph’s father, Thomas, to go to American Fork, Utah to work in a cooperative mercantile business. They arrived in American Fork on 5 Feb 1964 when Joseph was 24 years old and probably newly divorced.

Joseph had an older brother, four younger sisters, and three younger brothers. Two brothers and two sisters died before reaching adulthood. One wonders what effect these deaths had on the outlook of the individuals in the family.

In 1867 Joseph participated in the Sanpete Indian War/Black Hawk War as a scout reconnoitering the Sanpete and Sevier Valleys. He served as a Private in the Calvary in the Utah Territory Militia, receiving a gold medal for his services.

Joseph later married Ann Singleton in the Endowment House in 1868. She was 18 years old at the time. They eventually had 10 children, the last one being born when Joseph was 54 years old.

Joseph and Ann moved with their children to homestead land between Castle Dale and Ferron in 1878 when Joseph was 38. Joseph returned to American Fork in October or November of that year, while Ann stayed and wintered in a dugout. In 1879 Joseph married Dinah Stoddart Crookston, a widow from American Fork in the Endowment House, who had two children. They eventually had 6 children together. He took her to settle in Emery County with his other family.

The following appears in a DUP Lesson in January of 2001.

“In the fall of 1878 , Joseph came with other settlers to Castle Valley. Among them were William Taylor Sr., William Taylor Jr., J. A. Thornton, Mads Larsen, Mike Molen, and Hyrum Cook. Some were called by the LDS Church, but others had seen an advertisement in the Deseret News for certain kinds of laborers needed in Castle Valley. The men folk took up plots of ground, dug ditches, and built comfortable dugouts, but the women returned to Sanpete County to avoid winter in a wild country; only one woman remained, Ann Singleton Wrigley. Joseph Wrigley left her there with her children and went back for another other wife. Ann and her children, the oldest only five, faced the winter in solitude and experienced the trials of an untamed country with only a dugout for protection. Hers is a story of bravery and determination, and her example was a great help in building the morale of the other pioneers. Ferron could have done itself honor by adopting her name as “Ann’s Town”, instead of the name of a government man who casually passed through the area on a surveying job.

When the spring of 1879 came, there was an influx of new settlers. The wives came back and so did Joseph Wrigley with his other family. The Wrigley family made Ferron their home, and Joseph was active in the church and assisted in bringing immigrants to Utah.”

A monument in Ferron dedicated to the early settlers in the Castle Dale/Ferron area includes the name of Ann Singleton Wrigley.

In 1880, Joseph served a term as Constable in Ferron Utah.

In 1894, Joseph’s oldest son Edward moved with his wife and three children to Castle Valley to be near and work with his father at his father’s invitation. They stayed three years, but decided the experience should not be continued and returned to Salt Lake City. In Edward’s history, we read of the difficulties of living in that part of Utah. Edward told his children that he learned to love his Aunt Annie.

Following are some quotes about Joseph by his daughter Marintha in a history she wrote.

“He always said he contributed his success to his prayers and those of his parents. He also did some riding for the Pony Express.

“. His general experience that of a Frontiersman spending a great deal of his time away in the mountains.”

From the little information we have of Joseph, it seems that his life epitomized that of a true pioneer and explorer and frontiersman. He spent much of his time on the plains, and pioneering new territory. His daughter indicates Joseph was active in the church, and we know at some time he became a High Priest according to the book “Pioneers & Prominent Men of Utah”.

In the 1900 Census, Joseph appears with Ann in Ferron along with J. Alma, Wellington, Cathrine, Lacoran, Osborn and Lewellen. His wife Dinah lives with Marintha and Blanche in a different household. The four other children from this marriage died in childhood.

In the 1910 Census, in Ferron, Joseph appears with Dinah, Marintha, Alma, Wellington, Osborn and Llewellyn .

Ann Singleton Wrigley died on 4 Aug 1908. Joseph died in Ferron on 5 May 1911 at the age of 71 and his wife Dinah followed him in death on 14 June 1911.

                     TIMELINE OF JOSEPH WRIGLEY

1837 Thomas Wrigley and Grace Mary Wilkinson married in England

1838 Brother of Joseph, John was born.

1840 Birth of Joseph Wrigley on 24 Feb to Thomas Wrigley and Grace Mary Wilkinson

1842 Sister of Joseph, Mary was born.

1842(2) Thomas (Father of Joseph) left his family for Liverpool then boarded ship “Emerald” and left for America – Parley P. Pratt President of his company

1842(2) Thomas (father of Joseph) arrived in New Orleans in December then traveled to Nauvoo on “Maid of Iowa.”

1844 (4) Left for America in January with Mother, Brother John (6) and sister Mary (2).

1844 (4) Arrived in New Orleans in March where Thomas met them. Sailed the Mississippi River to St. Louis on “Maid of Iowa” arriving on 7 April 1944.

1845 (5) Sister of Joseph, Pricilla was born. Died in childhood.

1847 (7) Brother of Joseph, Thomas Brigham was born. Died in childhood.

1847 (7) Confirmed 1 Jan 1847

1849 (9) Sister of Joseph, Eliza Hannah was born. Died in childhood.

1850 Joseph appeared in the 1850 Census as 10 years old, living in Ward Three in St. Louis (Independent City) Missouri.

1851(11) Brother of Joseph, Alonzo Lina was born. Died in childhood.

1852 (12) Left Kanesville (council Bluffs) Iowa 24th June of 1852 for Salt Lake. Arrived on 20th Sep, 1852. The party included Joseph, his older brother John, his younger sister Mary and his parents.

1854 (14) Brother of Joseph, Laren Lacoran was born. Died in childhood.

1856 (16) Made his first trip back east to help pioneers travel west. Thomas and Grace Mary were endowed and sealed to each other in the Endowment House in March of 1856

1856 Sister of Joseph, Clara Ann was born.

1861 (21) Traveled to the Missouri River as a church teamster.

1862 (22) Again returned east with Captian Horne’s Company as a night herder.

1862 Initiatory and Endowment 20 Dec 1862

1863 (23) Traveled east in Peter Nebeker’s Train and back in Captain Patterson’s company.

1863 (23) Married Adah Lucy Steele 25th Nov 1863. Divorced before their son was born.

1864 (24) Was a night herder in Captain Chipman’s Company. (In all, made 8 trips east to help bring pioneers to Salt Lake.)

1864 (24) Moved to American Fork on 5 Feb

1864 (24) Child- Edward Charles was born. Edward was raised by his maternal grandparents.

1867 (27) Participated in the Sanpete Indian War/Black Hawk War as a scout reconnoitering the Sanpete and Sevier Valleys. He served as a Private in the Calvary in the Utah Territory Militia. *See following information on Black Hawk War.

1868 (28) Sealed to Ann Singleton 1 Nov 1868 EH. Married Ann Singleton on Nov 1 in Salt Lake City.

1870 (30) Child – Mary Ellen born to Joseph and Ann.

1872 (32) Child – Thomas born to Joseph and Ann.

1874 (34) Child – Clara Ann born to Joseph and Ann.

1877 (37) Child – Cornelia born to Joseph and Ann.

1878 (38) Traveled to Castle Valley with his family to settle. During the winter, Joseph returned Sanpete County while Ann stayed and wintered in Castle Dale in a dugout.

1879 (39) Child – Joseph Alma born to Joseph and Ann.

1879 (39) Married Dinah Stoddard Crookston (widowed with two daughters), from American Fork. They were married in the Endowment House. Then took this family to Castle Dale to unite with Ann and her family.

1880 (40) Served a term as Constable of Ferron.

1881 (41) Child – Marion born to Joseph and Dinah(died in childhood)

1882 (42) Child – Wellington born to Joseph and Ann.

1883 42) Child – James Owen born to Joseph and Dinah(died in childhood)

1884 (44) Child – Mary Grace born to Joseph and Dinah(died in childhood)

1885 (45) Child – Catharine Petrea born to Joseph and Ann.

1885 (45) Child – Stephen Roy born to Joseph and Dinah (died in childhood)

1887 (47) Child – Marintha born to Joseph and Dinah

1889 (49) Child – Lacoran born to Joseph and Ann.

1891 (51) Child – Blanche born to Joseph and Dinah

1892 (52) Child – John Osborne born to Joseph and Ann.

1894 (54) Child – Robert Llewellyn born to Joseph and Ann.

1894-1897 Edward, his first son, moved with his wife and three children to the homestead between Castle Dale and Ferron to work with his father.

1900 (60) In the 1900 Census, Joseph resided in Emery, Ferron, Molen Precincts, Emery, Utah Utah with Ann, J. Alma, Wellington, Catherine, Lacoran, Osborn, Lewellen in household #66. Dinah, Marinatha and Blanche lived in household #90.

1907 Sealed to Parents 15 May 1907 SL

1908 Ann passed away on 4 Aug.

1910 (70) In the 1910 Census, Joseph resided in Ferron, Emery, with Dinah, Marintha, Alma, Wellington, Osborn and Llewellyn.

1911 (71) On May 5, Joseph passed away in Ferron, Utah. On 14 June, Dinah followed him in death.

1989 Sealed to Adah Luch Steele 1 Nov 1989 IF

1996 Sealed to Dinah Stoddart Crookston 19 Jan 1996 Provo

                                     BLACK HAWK WAR
                                     Copied from onlineutah.com

The Black Hawk Indian War was the longest and most destructive conflict between pioneer immigrants and Native Americans in Utah History. The traditional date of the war's commencement is 9 April 1865 but tensions had been mounting for years. On that date bad feelings were transformed into violence when a handful of Utes and Mormon frontiersmen met in Manti, Sanpete County, to settle a dispute over some cattle killed and consumed by starving Indians. An irritated (and apparently inebriated) Mormon lost his temper and violently jerked a young chieftain from his horse. The insulted Indian delegation, which included *a dynamic young Ute named Black Hawk, abruptly left, promising retaliation. The threats were not idle - for over the course of the next few days Black Hawk and other Utes killed five Mormons and escaped to the mountains with hundreds of stolen cattle. Naturally, scores of hungry warriors and their families flocked to eat "Mormon beef" and to support Black Hawk, who was suddenly hailed as a war chief.

Encouraged by his success and increasing power, Black Hawk continued his forays, stealing more than two thousand head of stock and killing approximately twenty-five more whites that year. The young Ute by no means had the support of all of the Indians of Utah, but he succeeded in uniting factions of the Ute, Paiute,and Navaho tribes into a very loose confederacy bent on plundering Mormons throughout the territory. Cattle were the main objectives of Black Hawk's offensives but travelers, herdsmen, and settlers were massacred when it was convenient. Contemporary estimates indicate that as many as seventy whites were killed during the conflict.

The years 1865 to 1867 were by far the most intense of the conflict. Latter-day Saints considered themselves in a state of open warfare. They built scores of forts and deserted dozens of settlements while hundreds of Mormon militiamen chased their illusive adversaries through the wilderness with little success. Requests for federal troops went unheeded for eight years. Unable to distinguish "guilty" from "friendly" tribesmen, frustrated Mormons at times indiscriminately killed Indians, including women and children.

In the fall of 1867 Black Hawk made peace with the Mormons. Without his leadership the Indian forces, which never operated as a combined front, fragmented even further. The war's intensity decreased and a treaty of peace was signed in 1868. Intermittent raiding and killing, however, continued until 1872 when 200 federal troops were finally ordered to step in.

The Black Hawk War erupted as a result of the pressures white expansion brought to Native American populations. White settlement of Utah altered crucial ecosystems and helped destroy Indian subsistence patterns which caused starvation. Those who did not starve often succumbed to European diseases. Contemporary sources indicate that Indian populations in Utah in the 1860s were plummeting at frightening rates. White efforts to establish reservations contributed additional pressures.

                                                   BLACK HAWK WAR
                                                   Copied from Utah Wikipedia

There were over 100 separate attacks, raids, skirmishes, murders, and massacres between April 1865 and October 1872 which constitute the events of the Black Hawk War in Utah.

The first attack occurred at Manti on April 10 when Black Hawk led sixteen Utes to drive off a cattle herd outside Manti. Several young men rode out to see what was going on and ran into the Utes who began to shoot. One of the young men was shot and killed the rest fled back to Manti. The Indians around Manti had already struck camp and left knowing that hostilities were about to begin. The Utes rounded up forty cattle and drove them toward Salina Canyon.

Mormon version of events

The immediate causes of the Black Hawk War depend on which side is telling the story. The Mormon version is short and to the point. Black Hawk and Jake Arapeen and a group of Utes rode into Manti on April 9, 1865 to attend a meeting between local Utes and US government representatives there. The Utes came to make amends for butchering fifteen cattle to feed starving Ute families outside Manti, Utah. One of the cattle was owned by John Lowry, an interpreter for the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Utah. Lowry and Jerome Kempton had been assigned to hand out food to the starving Utes who had congregated around Manti during the winter and spring of 1865. John Lowry, who was drunk, began shouting at the assembled Ute leaders; Jake Aprapeen, the son of Chief Arapeen, began to argue back. Chief Sow-ok-soo-bet and Toquana, Chief Sowiette's son reminded Jake Arapeen that the Mormons had often helped the Indians with food and clothing and urged a peaceful settlement of the issue. Black Hawk and Jake Arapeen refused, implying that if the Utes were hungry they would continue to take Mormon beef. When Lowry launched into a second drunken tirade, Jake Arapeen set an arrow to his bow; Lowry instantly grabbed Jake by the hair and dragged him from his horse. There was a brief scuffle in the dirt until anxious associates on both sides dragged the two apart. Furious, Lowry raced home to get his pistol, and the Utes hastily left town shouting threats over their shoulders.

Ute version of events

The Indian version is very different. The incident at Manti was not the cause of the war; it simply set a match to the powderkeg of anger and frustration that had been building since 1848. 1864 had been a drought year, and the food shortage in Mormon settlements and the US Indian agent's failure to provide enough supplies to Utes on the new Uintah Reservation brought many bands to the brink of starvation. Older chiefs continued to urge peace with Mormon settlers, but younger men were more inclined to listen to Black Hawk and Jake Arapeen who had already made threatening statements against the Mormons at Manti and the other Sanpete Valley settlements, who had failed to help the Utes during the winter.

Contemporary sources help explain the deeply personal hatred which kept Black Hawk fighting for seven and a half years. Black Hawk had lost "wives and children" to measles and other diseases associated with the Mormons. To placate Shenob's anger against his people, Black Hawk led his people to fight the whites. Black Hawk, who had a reputation as a prophet, told contemporaries that his dead ancestors had come to him in a dream and told him to go ahead, fight, kill; Mormon cattle were his cattle. This aspect of Ute culture, which had a significant impact on the events of the Black Hawk War, are seldom recorded. Black Hawk had personally experienced the whites' distrust and contempt for his people. He had been beaten for a supposed theft with a bucket, family members had been shot, and heads taken as trophies in the Fort Utah War. He had been forced to lead Mormon militia against his own people. He was not alone; an entire generation had arisen who refused to give way to white settlers.

1 comment:

  1. Carolyn,

    This is only indirectly related to the Wrigley family but here goes. My great, great, great uncle (Luther) traveled to California from New York in 1861. We have the journal he kept on this trip. After trying his luck in Ca. for a year he decided to return to New York. He walked east, over the Sierras and met a Mormon freighter (David Savage) in the desert of Nevada in late 1862.

    He traveled with Savage to Cedar Fort area and spent the winter. The following year he hired on to be a drover on the Nebeker train bound for Omaha. I have searched but he does not mention Joseph. Too bad.

    An interesting coincidence of history. I enjoyed reading the story of Joseph's life.

    Jan Skidmore


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